Basic White Bread Pain de Mie (Poolish Method) 頂角白吐司(液種法)

I’ve been thinking of writing a detailed post about Pullman loaf and dough mixing for a long time: however, I keep delaying as there are just too many things to say and I hesitate if it’s worth the time writing a lengthy post while no one might be even interested in reading. Since the pandemic, more people, including myself, have started baking bread due to spending more time at home. My baking friends and I have discussed more about the problems we encounter while making bread. How long does it take for the dough to proof? How do you make a loaf with four perfect square corners? How do you properly mix the dough so it forms a thin membrane? How to make your bread stay soft longer? All these questions that I often get asked have facilitated me to put my thoughts into action. Bread making could be as simple as dumping all ingredients into the bread machine bucket, pressing a button, and then getting your freshly baked loaf after a couple of hours. Bread enthusiasts who are eager to create the best texture and flavor may pay attention to every single details such as mixing method, gluten development, dough temperature, proofing temperature and humidity and so on. “It’s just a loaf of bread!” you may say. But honestly a perfect loaf of bread is really worth the time and effort to make and I’m gonna explain to you my bread making process in a minute. If you don’t mind me being too wordy then please keep on reading.
一直很想寫一篇有關頂角吐司和打麵糰的詳細文章,但因為要交待的細節太多,加上花時間寫了又不知有沒有人看,因此一直不了了之。這年因疫情關係,很多人(包括自己)都留在家中做麵包,身邊做吐司的朋友多了也自然開始常常討論做吐司會遇上的問題,例如發酵發多久、怎樣才做到頂角、如何打出手套膜、麵包如何保鮮等等,因而促進EC立下決心將想法付諸實行。其實做麵包可簡單如把所有材料倒進麵包機的麵包桶內然後按鍵等數小時後出包,然而麵包狂熱份子為了追求自己滿意的口感和組織往往會十分注重細節,在揉麵方法、筋度建立、麵糰控溫和發酵溫度和濕度等事情上都一絲不苟地做足功夫。只是麵包一條,為什麼要這麼講究呢?其實簡單美味的麵包是絕對值得花耐性和心機去製作的。今天EC會詳細一點講解自己的麵包製作流程,倘若大家不嫌EC囉嗦的話請繼續往下看。

I’m gonna talk about how I use my stand mixer to mix my bread dough and also how I make a poolish starter. Similar to sponge, poolish is a type of pre-ferment that is made of equal parts flour and water (by weight) and a small amount of commercial yeast. Because of the high water content it is quite wet and has a paste-like consistency. It is pretty easy to prepare as all you need it to stir everything in a large bowl with a pair of chopsticks or a spatula. Sponge, on the other hand, is a lot stiffer due to its lower hydration level. Typically 30 to 40% of the total flour in a bread recipe is used to make the poolish starter. To convert a straight dough recipe to one with poolish method, calculate 30% of the total flour weight in the recipe and add an equal amount of water. The amount of yeast used is 10% of the total yeast in the original recipe. Mix these three ingredients to form a paste then let it ferment, covered, overnight. And these amounts will be deducted from the original recipe when the main dough is mixed the next day. Actually I would usually further reduce the yeast amount when I use the poolish or sponge method, but this is just personal preference so will not be discussed here. Furthermore, to compensate for the wear and tear, you could add a bit more or flour and water while making the poolish and usually a few grams of each will do. Recipe conversion requires you to extract a certain portion of ingredients from an original recipe according to baker’s percentages. I’ve provided examples in my two blog posts, Basic White Bread Pain de Mie (Sponge Method) as well as Basic White Bread Pain de Mie (Tangzhong Method). With the same principles and just different ratios, I won’t spend time with another illustration here.
除了如何用廚師機打麵糰之外,這次EC也分享液種做法。液種(或波蘭種、冰種、poolish)跟中種是十分相似的酵頭,液種是由等量的麵粉與水,加上少量商業酵母製作而成,因水量高所以呈膏或糊狀,製作上非常方便快捷,只要用筷子或膠刮拌勻即可,比含水量較少呈糰狀的中種簡單得多。液種麵粉使用量一般佔總配方麵粉量30至40%左右,若要把直接法配方改成液種法,可從原配方中總麵粉量計算出30%,加入相同重量的水和原配方速發酵母總量的10%,把所有材料拌勻便成膏狀的液種酵頭待其發酵,之後做主麵糰時則要從中扣除之前做液種的材料(其實做中種或液種時一般可再用少一點酵母,但這是個人喜好也是題外話)。鑑於做液種時會有耗損,所以麵粉和水可額外增加幾克。在頂角白吐司(中種法)湯種頂角白吐司兩篇文章已有詳細的實例分析如何把直接法食譜換成中種法和湯種法,箇中原理都是一樣的根據烘焙比例作出修改,只是大家比例不同而已,因此EC在這裏也不再舉例詳加解釋了。

Bread made with tangzhong, poolish and sponge are all very soft, fluffy and has a longer shelf-life. Bread would remain fresh even on the third day. I personally like Tangzhong bread the least because the bread sticks to my teeth when chewing. Poolish and sponge pre-ferments have a more complex flavor after an overnight of rest and could actually shorten the bulk fermentation time to just a short 30-minute bench rest when mixed with the main dough (note that tangzhong contains no yeast so it not a type of pre-ferment and have no contribution to the final bread flavor. You still need a bulk fermentation of 1 to 2 hours after mixing the main dough). Bread made with the poolish method is softer and have a tender and cottony texture whereas one made with the sponge method has more oven spring. I don’t need to let the dough rise that high to get a loaf with 4 perfect square corners. Its soft and springy texture is what I like most but my daughter prefers the fluffiness and tenderness of bread made with poolish. My son basically likes any type of bread as long as the crust is super soft and for hubby he doesn’t really care (are all husbands like this by the way?) After all, it’s all personal preference. If you have time I would recommend that you try to use the same bread recipe and convert it to different methods and explore on your own and see which one you like most.
使用湯種、液種和中種酵頭做的麵包皆十分柔軟,麵包老化的速度亦延緩了,三天後吃也不覺硬,但EC個人不是最喜歡湯種麵包,嫌咀嚼時其質地略帶黏牙。液種和中種法的麵包因部份麵糰經過隔夜發酵,酵母有多些時間慢慢建立味道,打好主麵糰後只要短暫醒發半小時左右便可直接造型進入最後發酵程序(注意湯種是不含酵母的,主麵糰做好後仍要進行一至兩小時基礎發酵才可整形,麵包味道不豐富)。兩者比較起上來,液種法的吐司內部組織更綿密和鬆軟,而中種法的麵糰膨脹和爆發力強些,最後發酵時不用像液種法般發到九分滿模已可焗出完美的頂角,麵包更覺有有彈性。EC偏愛富彈性的中種吐司,但女兒則喜愛超柔軟的液種吐司,至於兒子嘛,只要是外皮又薄又柔軟的麵包他都爱吃,老公是完全沒所謂的那種(老公都是沒要求的麼???)。所以說口味是很個人化的,有時間的話EC會建議大家用同一原配方各自改成不同做法做實驗比較一下,找出自己喜歡的方法和味道。

One final word, if you are still reading, is that my North American brand pullman loaf pan has the size of 9”x4″x4″, which is slightly bigger in capacity than the Asian brand 450g-toast box. Please multiply my entire recipe by 0.9 in order to adjust to a 450-g toast box.
如果大家仍在看的話,請注意EC使用的北美牌子帶蓋吐司盒尺寸為9”x4″x4″,容量比一般的450克(12両)吐司盒稍大。若使用450克吐司盒的話可把配方份量乘0.9倍。


Basic White Bread Pain de Mie (Poolish Method)
頂角白吐司(液種法)

For 9”x4”x4” Pullman loaf pan
9”x4”x4”帶蓋吐司模份量

Ingredients
For the Poolish
93 g bread flour
93 g water
0.3 g instant yeast (I use SAF gold instant yeast)
For the Final Dough
180 g poolish
210 g bread flour
90 to 105 g water (add 90 g first then add more later as needed)
24 g dry milk powder
21 g granulated sugar (I use organic cane sugar)
2.7 g instant yeast (I use SAF gold instant yeast)
4.5 g salt
21 g unsalted butter, softened

材料
冷藏液種/冰種/波蘭種
高筋麵粉 93克
水 93克
速發酵母/耐高糖酵母 0.3克
主麵糰
液種 180克
高筋麵粉 210克
水 90-105克(先加90克再視乎麵粉吸水量調節)
奶粉 24克
細砂糖(EC用有機原蔗糖) 21克
速發酵母/耐高糖酵母 2.7克
鹽 4.5克
無鹽牛油(室溫放軟) 21克

Directions 做法
For the Poolish 冷藏液種
Place the poolish ingredients in a large bowl and stir well to form a thick paste. Cover with plastic wrap and let rise at room temperature for 2 to 3 hours until bubbly and doubled in size then refrigerate for 12 to 18 hours.
***For same-day use, let dough rise at room temperature until the surface is covered with small bubbles and almost tripled in size. The interior would look like a honeycomb with lots of holes if torn apart. Go by the appearance of the dough instead of time to determine if the poolish is ready to use
大碗內拌匀所有液種材料成糊狀後用保鮮紙蓋好,溫室發酵2至3小時至充滿氣泡體積約大一倍,轉放雪櫃冷藏12至18小時備用。
***即日使用的話需看麵糊狀態而不是看時間,室溫發酵至液種表面充滿氣泡約兩倍大,撕開時裡面呈蜂窩狀

For the Final Dough 主麵糰
Remove the poolish from the fridge (use it immediately during the summer and let sit for 10 minutes in winter). In the bowl of the stand mixer fitted with the dough hook, combine the poolish and all ingredients of the main dough except the butter and salt. Mix with low speed until the dough comes together. Raise speed to medium-low and beat until the dough is somewhat smooth, not tacky and forms a thick membrane when stretched. If the dough feels dry then add more water a little bit each time.
***In general if the dough suddenly comes off the hook and spins around it while the hook is turning it means that it could hold more water. Usually more water can be added during winter time. Always reserve some water to be gradually added later. If all the water is dumped in all at once in the beginning, the flour will be shocked and the dough will be sloppy
從雪櫃取出液種,冬天可先回溫10分鐘,夏天時直接使用,把除牛油和鹽外所有主麵糰材料放在廚師機的攪拌盆,裝上麵糰勾低速打至卷起成糰,轉中低至中速打至麵糰表面仍有少許粗糙,不太黏手並能用手拉出不光滑的厚膜,過程中要同時觀察麵糰受水狀況。
***一般來說若打麵糰時麵糰忽然脫離轉動中的勾子只在旁邊翻滾自轉便表示麵糰仍可吃水,水要事先扣起一部份之後少量地加進麵糰,冬天天氣乾燥一般可多加水,若一開始時把所有水份全加進去,麵糰會無法承受而變得稀爛

Add in salt and softened butter and continue kneading with low speed until all the butter is incorporated. Raise speed to medium-low and beat for 2 minutes. Check the dough consistency and add more water if necessary. Continue kneading and checking every minute until the dough is soft, smooth and forms a thin and translucent membrane when stretched. Raise speed to medium to medium-high and beat for 15 to 20 seconds to strengthen the gluten structure. At this point you should be able to feel that the thin membrane is stronger and less likely to tear than before and that the hole will be very smooth. Remove dough and divide evenly into three pieces. Shape each into a ball and then an olive. With the seam side down, place shapes on a pastry mat (lightly flour the surface if needed), cover with plastic wrap and let rest at room temperature for 30 minutes.
***Monitor the final dough temperature to below 26℃ for the best result. Dough with warmer temperature tends to be stickier and would cause the dough to rise too soon which affects the final bread texture. Warm room temperature (especially in the summer) and extended mixing time both contribute to the heating up of dough. If at any point the dough is heating up, wrap the mixing bowl with a cold damp towel to lower the temperature and use cool or even cold water in the summer.
***Pay attention to the dough consistency and texture instead of mixing time while adjusting the mixing speed as stand mixers vary in power
***I found it more effective and organized to divide and preshape the dough right after mixing. If done after bench rest, at least 15 minutes of extra bench rest is needed for the gluten to relax again before I can do my final shaping
加入軟化牛油和鹽,低速打至牛油完全被吸收,轉中速打兩分鐘後檢查麵糰的出膜情況和是否可以繼續吸收多些水份,之後每打一分鐘檢查一次,打至麵糰柔軟光滑細膩能拉出薄膜時轉中高速甩打15至20秒左右強化組織令薄膜變得堅韌不易破並洞口光滑(即完全擴展階段),取出打好的麵糰平均分成三份滾圓,塑成橄欖型後收口朝下,用保鮮紙蓋好鬆弛30分鐘。
***打麵糰其間要注意麵糰終溫不要超過26℃,溫度過高的麵糰質地會變黏,發酵速度過快會破壞發酵氣泡和影響麵包的組織,室溫太熱(尤其是夏天)或長時間用機器揉麵都是令麵糰升溫的主要原因,必要時可用凍的濕布包裹攪拌盆幫助降溫,夏天時可使用凍水
***每部廚師機馬力不同因此打麵糰時要看麵糰狀態而不是時間調整速度
***打好麵糰後立即分割滾圓會更有效率和有條理,若醒發後才開始分割並滾圓,麵糰要再度鬆弛至少15分鐘才可繼續餘下造型

Gently flatten a dough and roll it into a long rectangle. With the smooth side facing down, roll up the dough into a log. Repeat with the rest of the dough. Gently roll to stretch the logs to about twice the width of the bread pan then fold in half like a U shape. Transfer the logs, seam side down, into the pullman loaf pan with an “u n u” arrangement. Cover the pan with plastic wrap and let rise in a warm place like a microwave or an oven with the keep warm function switched on for a minute. Place a cup of hot water inside to add humidity and exchanging when cool, and, with temperature maintained roughly at 86℉/30℃ and a humidity of 70 to 80%, let rise until the dough fills up about 90% of the pan, about 1.5 to 2 hours. Remove plastic wrap and slide on the lid. Let rest at room temperature for 10 to 15 minutes until you feel resistance when the lid is pushed slightly (i.e. the dough is already touching the lid). Resist the temptation to open the lid to peek inside as this will tear the dough surface. While waiting, preheat oven to 325℉/165℃.
***dust mat surface with flour and use a bench scraper to pick up the dough if it is too sticky
***pay attention to the dough size instead of time while determining if the bread is ready to bake. This is based on a dough with 1% yeast in bakers’ percentage. Bread can be baked sooner if more yeast is used or the oven temperature is set higher.
取一份麵糰用手拍扁,碌成長方形麵片後翻面光滑面朝下,若兩旁有氣泡要拍走,由上至下捲起成圓條,再完成其他麵糰,把麵糰逐一輕滾長至吐司盒闊度約兩倍的長度,摺成u形,以unu方法收口朝下排放入模,蓋上保鮮紙放在溫暖的地方(如開啓了保溫功能一分鐘的焗爐或微波爐),內放一杯熱水增加濕度並且水涼了便換水,保持溫度86℉/30℃濕度70-80%左右發酵至九分滿模,約1.5至2小時,取走保鮮紙並蓋上吐司盒蓋,繼續室溫發酵10至15分鐘直至感覺到輕推吐司盒蓋時有阻力(此時麵糰已頂着蓋子因此千萬别好奇打開蓋子,否則麵糰會被扯破),等待期間同時預熱焗爐至325℉/165℃。
***麵糰黏的話可在墊上洒點手粉並用刮板協作造型
***發酵時需觀察麵糰大小而非看時間去判斷何時入爐,麵糰的酵母量為烘焙百分比1%,若酵母用量多於此或爐溫比食譜建議的高應提早入爐

Bake for 38 minutes (40 to 42 minutes for darker crust). Remove from the oven and tap it on the countertop to release hot air. Take off the lid carefully and wiggle the pan several times to loosen the edges. Immediately transfer the bread to a cooling rack to cool completely before slicing.
***Baking time is for reference only. Bread is done when the crust is lightly golden brown with an internal temperature of at least 190 to 195℉ (88 to 90℃) on an instant-read thermometer.
***small over with top elements close to the bread pan may cause the top crust to brown unevenly. If that happens tnen tent the pan with aluminum foil half way during baking next time;
把吐司盒放入焗爐焗38分鐘(喜歡深色外皮可焗40至42分鐘),取出登一登釋出熱氣,小心開蓋搖晃幾下幫助吐司離模後立即倒出脫模,放鋼架放凉後才切片。
***入爐溫度和時間僅供參考,出爐時麵包表面應呈微微金黃色且中心溫度達190至195℉(88至90℃
***焗爐上發熱線太近吐司盒的話會容易做成吐司頂部表皮上色偏深,若出現此情況時下次可於中途加蓋錫紙

See the following video for my dough shaping process.
以下是吐司造型短片

The same bread recipe with the traditional log shaping. The unu shaping method is my preferred method as it is faster.
傳統的圓桶造型,個人認為以unu方法排放入模相對上會較快手。

Left: control the final dough temperature.
Right: the membrane could be this translucent but it is not absolutely necessary
左:控制麵糰終溫
右:很多人會追求手套膜,但這不是必須的

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