Gluten-Free Tangerine Chiffon Cake 無麩質柑橘戚風蛋糕

This gluten-free chiffon cake is an adaption from my Orange Chiffon Cake and I have to say that it tastes as light and fluffy as any chiffon cake made with wheat flour! Chiffon cake does not rely on gluten but beaten egg whites to help it rise. So if you could whip a gorgeous meringue and incorporate it into your batter flawlessly, your cake would rise up beautifully.
這是無麩質的橙香戚風蛋糕,其味道與質感跟一般小麥麵粉製作的戚風蛋糕無異,都是一樣的鬆軟。戚風蛋糕不像其他烘焙食品靠麵粉的麩質(即筋度)作支撐,而是靠打發的蛋白霜協助上升。因此若蛋白霜打發得好,拌入蛋黃糊時又沒有消泡,那麼蛋糕在焗爐内便會漂亮地往上爬升 。

With reference to Chef Coppedge’s book “Gluten-Free Baking with The Culinary Institute of America”, I used a combination of rice flour, brown rice flour, potato starch and tapioca starch for my gluten-free flour blend. I’ve done it several times with slight adjustments for comparisons and I did notice a difference in terms of the cake texture whether starch was included or not. Chiffon cake made with solely rice flour had a slightly crumbly texture whereas cake with starches added was more tender and moist. It was also more springy which tasted just like cakes made with wheat flour. Both tapioca and potato starches are naturally gluten-free and are very easy to find at local grocery stores at a fairly cheap price. But if you worry about contamination during the manufacturing process, purchase only certified gluten-free products when possible. Depending on where the products were made, both starches have similar Chinese names that is super confusing. One way to distinguish between them is to look at the ingredients.
EC參考了Chef Coppedge的“Gluten-Free Baking with The Culinary Institute of America”一書,利用粘米粉,糙米粉,木薯粉和馬鈴薯澱粉調配了無麩質麵粉製作無麩質蛋糕 。EC也嘗試改變配方作不同比較,結果發現澱粉的加入對蛋糕口感和整體結構有很大的影響。只用粘米粉做的戚風蛋糕入口咀嚼幾下之後便會開始散開。反之,加了澱粉的蛋糕質地十分濕潤,組織很綿密和充滿彈性,口感跟用低筋麵粉做的一模一樣。在中式料理中經常使用的木薯粉和馬鈴薯澱粉均不含麩質, 在普通超市便能輕鬆找到,而且價格十分便宜 。可是若擔心食材在製作中途被污染的話便需購買備有無麩質認證的產品。值得一提的是,兩種澱粉於不同產地擁有不同卻又很相似的中文名稱,因此在超市選購時或許會感到較紊亂,最簡單的辨識方法就是看包裝上的成份。

Potato starch is a flavorless and odorless starch extracted from crushed potatoes. The starch is then washed out and dried to a fine, bright-white powder form. According to How To Use Starch in Gluten Free Baking, potato starch provides structure, tenderness and binding power in baking. Do not confuse potato starch with potato flour which is made from potatoes that have been peeled, cooked, dried, and ground into a fine powder. Tapioca starch, on the other hand, is the same as tapioca flour. It is a starch extracted from the root of the cassava plant and “gives chewy texture, elasticity and structure to baked goods”. This is also the key ingredient in my Brazilian cheese bread Pão de Queijo.
馬鈴薯澱粉又被稱為日本太白粉,生粉和薯仔粉,是一種由壓碎的馬鈴薯中提取的無味的澱粉,澱粉提取後便會經過脫水和乾燥的程序製成白色幼細粉末。在How To Use Starch in Gluten Free Baking中提及馬鈴薯澱粉在烘焙中有改善結構,軟化和粘合的作用。注意不要搞錯馬鈴薯澱粉和馬鈴薯粉,馬鈴薯粉是將馬鈴薯去皮煮熟後再乾燥磨成的細粉,因此兩者不應混為一談。另一方面,木薯澱粉和木薯粉都是一樣的,其他名稱還包括樹薯粉,寶島太白粉和泰國生粉。木薯粉是從樹薯根部提煉而成的澱粉,有助提高烘焙食品的結構,Q度和彈性。此外亦是葡式芝士麵包球的主要材料之一。

Please note that this flour blend is relatively weak so is good for foam cakes such as chiffon cakes, sponge cake and angel food cakes only. For other baked goods that need more structure, use a higher protein flour blend and add gums (such as guar gum and xanthan gum) to improve the viscosity and help with rising. Refer to Gluten Free Easy for more gluten-free flour blends. If you don’t have brown rice flour in the pantry then feel free to replace it with rice flour. I’ve tried that and such adjustment is unlikely to make a noticeable difference for this cake.
請注意此麵粉配方的支撐力不大,因此只適用於乳沫類蛋糕如戚風蛋糕,海綿蛋糕和天使蛋糕等製作。 其他需要強壯的麵筋組織的烘焙食品則需調配蛋白質比重較高的無麩質麵粉配方,並且需要加入如黃原膠和瓜爾膠等增調劑把材料黏合並協助成品膨脹。 更多無麩質麵粉配方可參考Gluten Free Easy網站。家中沒有糙米粉的話可用粘米粉取替。EC做過實驗後發覺這輕微改動不足以令蛋糕產生重大變化。


Gluten-Free Tangerine Chiffon Cake
無麩質柑橘戚風蛋糕

For 7” tube pan
7”中空模份量

Ingredients

1/2 tsp tangerine zest
50 g granulated sugar (I use organic cane sugar)
23 g brown rice flour
34 g rice flour
10 g potato starch
13 g tapioca starch
A pinch of salt
4 egg yolks, large
40 g grapeseed oil
60 g tangerine juice, freshly squeezed
4 egg whites, large
1/2 tsp white vinegar or lemon juice (I used Korean apple vinegar)

Notes: The eggs I use are about 50 to 55 g each without shells.

材料

柑橘皮茸 1/2茶匙
細砂糖(EC用有機蔗糖) 50克
糙米粉 23克
粘米粉 34克
馬鈴薯澱粉 10克
木薯粉 13克
鹽 少許
大蛋蛋黃 4個
葡萄籽油 40克
鮮榨柑橘汁 60克
大蛋蛋白 4個
白醋或檸檬汁(EC用韓國蘋果醋) 1/2茶匙

註:EC用的大蛋每隻淨重約50-55克

 

Directions 做法

In a small bowl, rub zest into the sugar with fingertips until fragrant. Set aside. Preheat oven to 325ºF/165ºC
取一小碗放入糖和柑橘皮茸,以指尖捽至發香備用,焗爐預熱325ºF/165ºC。

In a large mixing bowl, whisk together the brown rice flour, rice flour, potato starch, tapioca starch and salt. Make a well in the center then pour in egg yolks, oil and juice. Whisk gently until incorporated. Set aside. Note that this mixture is very runny compared to one made with regular wheat flour.
取一鋼盆放入糙米粉,粘米粉,木薯粉,馬鈴薯澱粉和鹽拌勻,中開一穴後倒入蛋黃,油和柑橘汁,輕手用蛋拂攪拌均勻成蛋黃糊備用,注意此蛋黃糊比一般小麥麵粉製作的蛋黃糊稀。

With a hand mixer or a stand mixer fitted with the whisk attachment, whip egg whites and vinegar (to stabilize the meringue) with medium-high speed until very foamy. Gradually add sugar in batches and continue beating with medium speed until soft peaks. Beat at medium-low speed until meringue is glossy and reaches firm peaks. When you lift up the whisk, the peak will hold its shape but the tip will fall back very slightly.
用電動打蛋器或座枱式攪拌器(使用打蛋器配件)將蛋白和醋(可令蛋白霜更穩定)中高速打至蛋白組織變細密,分次加糖中速打至軟勾狀,之後轉低速打至蛋白霜有光澤及企身,拉起時蛋白霜末端呈輕微下垂狀。

Scoop about one third of the meringue into the yolk mixture and fold with a whisk to lighten. Then scrape this back into the bowl of meringue. Fold gently and thoroughly (so you don’t deflate the meringue) with a spatula until homogeneous.
將三分一蛋白霜混入蛋黃糊中用蛋拂以切拌方法充份拌勻,再倒回蛋白霜鋼盆中輕手用膠刮以切拌方法混合至麵糊成均一顔色,盡量輕手並快手完成混合以免蛋白霜消泡。

Pour into the pan. Tap pan against the kitchen countertop several times to get rid of any large air bubbles. Smooth top with an offset spatula.
將麵糊倒入模中,將烤模往枱上輕敲幾下敲出較大的氣泡後抹平表面。

Bake at 325ºF/165ºC for 10 minutes then reduce temperature to 300ºF/150ºC and bake an additional 30 to 35 minutes or until a wooden skewer inserted in the center of cake comes out clean. Every oven is different so adjust baking time accordingly. Drop cake pan on the kitchen countertop at a distance upon removal from the oven. This will release any gas trapped in the cake cells and minimize shrinkage. Invert pan on a wire rack to cool completely before unmolding.
入爐325ºF/165ºC焗10分鐘後降溫至300ºF/150ºC,多焗30至35分鐘至竹籤插入蛋糕中心取出後不沾麵糊,不同焗爐可能要不同時間,請自行調節,取出後將蛋糕連烤模從半空往枱上捽一下將困於蛋糕內的空氣震破避免蛋糕回縮,在鋼架上倒扣放涼後可脫模。

These ones have different Chinese names but they are basically all potato starch.
這些中文名稱各有不同,但其實全部都是馬鈴薯澱粉。

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