This gluten-free chiffon cake is an adaption from my Orange Chiffon Cake and I have to say that it tastes as light and fluffy as any chiffon cake made with wheat flour! Chiffon cake does not rely on gluten but beaten egg whites to help it rise. So if you could whip a gorgeous meringue and incorporate it into your batter flawlessly, your cake would rise up beautifully.
With reference to Chef Coppedge’s book “Gluten-Free Baking with The Culinary Institute of America”, I used a combination of rice flour, brown rice flour, potato starch and tapioca starch for my gluten-free flour blend. I’ve done it several times with slight adjustments for comparisons and I did notice a difference in terms of the cake texture whether starch was included or not. Chiffon cake made with solely rice flour had a slightly crumbly texture whereas cake with starches added was more tender and moist. It was also more springy which tasted just like cakes made with wheat flour. Both tapioca and potato starches are naturally gluten-free and are very easy to find at local grocery stores at a fairly cheap price. But if you worry about contamination during the manufacturing process, purchase only certified gluten-free products when possible. Depending on where the products were made, both starches have similar Chinese names that is super confusing. One way to distinguish between them is to look at the ingredients.
EC參考了Chef Coppedge的“Gluten-Free Baking with The Culinary Institute of America”一書，利用粘米粉，糙米粉，木薯粉和馬鈴薯澱粉調配了無麩質麵粉製作無麩質蛋糕 。EC也嘗試改變配方作不同比較，結果發現澱粉的加入對蛋糕口感和整體結構有很大的影響。只用粘米粉做的戚風蛋糕入口咀嚼幾下之後便會開始散開。反之，加了澱粉的蛋糕質地十分濕潤，組織很綿密和充滿彈性，口感跟用低筋麵粉做的一模一樣。在中式料理中經常使用的木薯粉和馬鈴薯澱粉均不含麩質， 在普通超市便能輕鬆找到，而且價格十分便宜 。可是若擔心食材在製作中途被污染的話便需購買備有無麩質認證的產品。值得一提的是，兩種澱粉於不同產地擁有不同卻又很相似的中文名稱，因此在超市選購時或許會感到較紊亂，最簡單的辨識方法就是看包裝上的成份。
Potato starch is a flavorless and odorless starch extracted from crushed potatoes. The starch is then washed out and dried to a fine, bright-white powder form. According to How To Use Starch in Gluten Free Baking, potato starch provides structure, tenderness and binding power in baking. Do not confuse potato starch with potato flour which is made from potatoes that have been peeled, cooked, dried, and ground into a fine powder. Tapioca starch, on the other hand, is the same as tapioca flour. It is a starch extracted from the root of the cassava plant and “gives chewy texture, elasticity and structure to baked goods”. This is also the key ingredient in my Brazilian cheese bread Pão de Queijo.
馬鈴薯澱粉又被稱為日本太白粉，生粉和薯仔粉，是一種由壓碎的馬鈴薯中提取的無味的澱粉，澱粉提取後便會經過脫水和乾燥的程序製成白色幼細粉末。在How To Use Starch in Gluten Free Baking中提及馬鈴薯澱粉在烘焙中有改善結構，軟化和粘合的作用。注意不要搞錯馬鈴薯澱粉和馬鈴薯粉，馬鈴薯粉是將馬鈴薯去皮煮熟後再乾燥磨成的細粉，因此兩者不應混為一談。另一方面，木薯澱粉和木薯粉都是一樣的，其他名稱還包括樹薯粉，寶島太白粉和泰國生粉。木薯粉是從樹薯根部提煉而成的澱粉，有助提高烘焙食品的結構，Q度和彈性。此外亦是葡式芝士麵包球的主要材料之一。
Please note that this flour blend is relatively weak so is good for foam cakes such as chiffon cakes, sponge cake and angel food cakes only. For other baked goods that need more structure, use a higher protein flour blend and add gums (such as guar gum and xanthan gum) to improve the viscosity and help with rising. Refer to Gluten Free Easy for more gluten-free flour blends. If you don’t have brown rice flour in the pantry then feel free to replace it with rice flour. I’ve tried that and such adjustment is unlikely to make a noticeable difference for this cake.
請注意此麵粉配方的支撐力不大，因此只適用於乳沫類蛋糕如戚風蛋糕，海綿蛋糕和天使蛋糕等製作。 其他需要強壯的麵筋組織的烘焙食品則需調配蛋白質比重較高的無麩質麵粉配方，並且需要加入如黃原膠和瓜爾膠等增調劑把材料黏合並協助成品膨脹。 更多無麩質麵粉配方可參考Gluten Free Easy網站。家中沒有糙米粉的話可用粘米粉取替。EC做過實驗後發覺這輕微改動不足以令蛋糕產生重大變化。
Gluten-Free Tangerine Chiffon Cake
For 7” tube pan
1/2 tsp tangerine zest
50 g granulated sugar (I use organic cane sugar)
23 g brown rice flour
34 g rice flour
10 g potato starch
13 g tapioca starch
A pinch of salt
4 egg yolks, large
40 g grapeseed oil
60 g tangerine juice, freshly squeezed
4 egg whites, large
1/2 tsp white vinegar or lemon juice (I used Korean apple vinegar)
Notes: The eggs I use are about 50 to 55 g each without shells.
In a small bowl, rub zest into the sugar with fingertips until fragrant. Set aside. Preheat oven to 325ºF/165ºC
In a large mixing bowl, whisk together the brown rice flour, rice flour, potato starch, tapioca starch and salt. Make a well in the center then pour in egg yolks, oil and juice. Whisk gently until incorporated. Set aside. Note that this mixture is very runny compared to one made with regular wheat flour.
With a hand mixer or a stand mixer fitted with the whisk attachment, whip egg whites and vinegar (to stabilize the meringue) with medium-high speed until very foamy. Gradually add sugar in batches and continue beating with medium speed until soft peaks. Beat at medium-low speed until meringue is glossy and reaches firm peaks. When you lift up the whisk, the peak will hold its shape but the tip will fall back very slightly.
Scoop about one third of the meringue into the yolk mixture and fold with a whisk to lighten. Then scrape this back into the bowl of meringue. Fold gently and thoroughly (so you don’t deflate the meringue) with a spatula until homogeneous.
Pour into the pan. Tap pan against the kitchen countertop several times to get rid of any large air bubbles. Smooth top with an offset spatula.
Bake at 325ºF/165ºC for 10 minutes then reduce temperature to 300ºF/150ºC and bake an additional 30 to 35 minutes or until a wooden skewer inserted in the center of cake comes out clean. Every oven is different so adjust baking time accordingly. Drop cake pan on the kitchen countertop at a distance upon removal from the oven. This will release any gas trapped in the cake cells and minimize shrinkage. Invert pan on a wire rack to cool completely before unmolding.
These ones have different Chinese names but they are basically all potato starch.
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